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Pedology and soil class mapping from proximal and remote sensed data

Poppiel, Raúl R., Lacerda, Marilusa P.C., Demattê, José A.M., Oliveira, Manuel P., Gallo, Bruna C., Safanelli, José L.
Geoderma 2019 v.348 pp. 189-206
Landsat, color, kaolinite, normal distribution, quartz, reflectance, remote sensing, sesquioxides, soil heterogeneity, soil mineralogy, soil sampling, soil surveys, texture, time series analysis, toposequences, topsoil, Brazil
Pedological assessment and mapping by hyperspectral proximal and multispectral remote sensing comes up as an important alternative for large extent areas with high soil variability. Strategies indicating how to integrate these multi-source data for digital soil mapping are emerging. In this paper, we used proximal and remote sensed data to perform pedological assessments and to support a detailed soil class mapping by MESMA. The study area is located in Southeast of Federal District, Brazil. Six toposequences were defined according to pedomorphogeological assessments and 34 sites were collected for laboratory analysis (texture and chemical) and VIS-NIR-SWIR (350–2500 nm) spectroscopy reflectance analysis. We assessed soil mineralogy based on derivative analysis of topsoil reflectance and we grouped observations to recognize topsoil spectral patterns by clustering method. Topsoil patterns (mean spectral curve for each cluster) were convolved using a Gaussian function of Landsat 5-TM spectral bands to obtain endmembers. Then, we used a Landsat 5 TM time series to produce a bare soil composite denominated Synthetic Soil Image (SYSI). Endmembers and SYSI were used as input data for Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) to map the soil classes. Topsoil spectra clustered soil samples that were similar in texture, mineralogy and color, and identified 13 topsoil patterns (endmembers). SYSI retrieved 74% of bare soil area coverage and presented very similar spectral patterns to endmembers. The RGB 543 composite highlighted the mineralogy (i.g. sesquioxides, kaolinite and quartz), texture and color of the soils. MESMA modeled almost 100% of SYSI from endmembers, with low global RMSE of 0.86% and high global fraction of 62%. Soil classes were mapped using topsoil reflectance patterns and satellite images by MESMA method. We validated the digital soil map by using independent field-visited sites, which reached a Kappa coefficient of 0.73. We efficiently assessed soil mineralogy and recognized patterns from laboratory topsoil spectra. We successfully mapped soil classes using topsoil reflectance patterns and a bare soil composite image by MESMA method.