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Joint toxic effects of cadmium and four pesticides on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

Yu, Yijun, Li, Xinfang, Yang, Guiling, Wang, Yanhua, Wang, Xinquan, Cai, Leiming, Liu, Xinju
Chemosphere 2019 v.227 pp. 489-495
Eisenia fetida, abamectin, agrochemicals, atrazine, bioassays, cadmium, chlorpyrifos, earthworms, heavy metals, lambda-cyhalothrin, soil toxicity, synergism, toxicity, toxicity testing
The contaminants, instead of single contaminants, are usually found as chemical mixtures in terrestrial environment. However, little information is now available about the joint effects of heavy metals and farm chemicals on the soil organism. Our current study aimed to assess the combined toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and four pesticides (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin and abamectin) to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) with binary, ternary, quaternary and quinquenary mixtures. Two distinct kinds of bioassay systems were applied in this study, including contact filter paper test and artificial soil test. Synergistic effects were observed from two quaternary mixtures (Cd-Atrazine-Chlorpyrifos-Lambda-cyhalothrin and Cd-Chlorpyrifos-Lambda-cyhalothrin-Abamectin) and one quinquenary mixture (Cd-Atrazine-Chlorpyrifos-Lambda-cyhalothrin-Abamectin) in both bioassay systems. Besides, two binary mixtures (Cd-Atrazine and Cd-Lambda-cyhalothrin) and three ternary mixtures (Cd-Atrazine-Chlorpyrifos, Cd-Atrazine-Lambda-cyhalothrin and Cd-Chlorpyrifos-Lambda-cyhalothrin) also exhibited synergistic effects on E. fetida by the soil toxicity test. It is more practical to evaluate the contaminant toxicities to earthworm by soil toxicity test. Therefore, the effects of chemical mixtures on soil invertebrates might be underestimated by data obtained from single toxicant. Our findings would offer a better understanding of the complex effects of chemical mixtures on non-target living creatures, and these findings provided valuable insights into the interplay of different chemicals in natural environment.