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Bacterial response to antimony and arsenic contamination in rice paddies during different flooding conditions
- Sun, Weimin, Sun, Xiaoxu, Li, Baoqin, Häggblom, Max M., Han, Feng, Xiao, Enzong, Zhang, Miaomiao, Wang, Qi, Li, Fangbai
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.675 pp. 273-285
- Clostridiaceae, Geobacter, antimony, arsenic, bioavailability, biotransformation, developmental stages, drained conditions, flooded conditions, irrigation, microbial communities, microorganisms, oxidation, paddies, rice, ripening, vegetative growth
- Rice is more vulnerable to arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) contamination than other cereals due to the special cultivation methods, during which irrigation conditions are adjusted depending upon the growth stages. The changes in irrigation conditions may alter the oxidation states of Sb and As, which influences their mobility and bioavailability and hence uptake by rice. In this study, bacterial responses to As and Sb contamination in rice fields were investigated during two different stages of rice growth: the vegetative stage (flooded conditions), and the ripening stage (drained conditions). The substantial changes in the irrigation conditions caused a variation in geochemical parameters including the As- and Sb-extractable fractions. As and Sb were more mobile and bioaccessible during the flooded than under drained conditions. The microbial communities varied during two irrigation conditions, suggesting that the geochemical conditions may have different effects on the innate paddy microbiota. Therefore, various statistical tools including co-occurrence network and random forest (RF) were performed to reveal the environment-microbe interactions in two different irrigation conditions. One of the notable findings is that Sb- and As-related parameters exerted more influences during the flooded than under drained conditions. Furthermore, a detailed RF analysis indicated that the individual bacterial taxa may also respond differently to contaminant fractions during the two irrigation conditions. Notably, RF indicated that individual taxa such as Clostridiaceae and Geobacter may be responsible for biotransformation of As and Sb (e.g., As and Sb reduction). The results provided knowledge for As and Sb transformation during contrasting irrigation conditions and the potential mitigation strategy for contaminant removal.