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Characterization of trimethyl chitosan/polyethylene glycol derivatized chitosan blend as an injectable and degradable antimicrobial delivery system
- Boles, Logan R., Bumgardner, Joel D., Fujiwara, Tomoko, Haggard, Warren O., Guerra, Fernanda D., Jennings, Jessica A.
- International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.133 pp. 372-381
- amikacin, cell viability, chitosan, fibroblasts, orthopedics, polyethylene glycol, vancomycin
- Advanced local delivery systems are needed as adjunctive treatments for severe injuries with high infection rates, such as open fractures. Chitosan systems have been investigated as antimicrobial local delivery systems for orthopaedic infection but possess mismatches between elution and degradation properties. Derivatives of chitosan were chosen that have enhanced swelling ratios or tailorable degradation properties. A combination of trimethyl chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate chitosan was developed as an injectable local delivery system. Research objectives were elution of antimicrobials for 7 days, degradation as open fractures heal, and cytocompatibility. The derivative combination eluted increased active concentrations of vancomycin and amikacin compared to the non-derivatized chitosan paste, 6 vs. 5 days and 5 vs. 4 days, respectively. The derivative combination degraded slower than non-derivatized paste in an enzymatic degradation study, 14 vs. 3 days, which increased antimicrobial delivery duration. Cytocompatibility of the combination with fibroblast and pre-osteoblast cells exceeds the cell viability standard set in ISO 10993-5. Combination paste requires an increased ejection force of 9.40 N (vs. 0.64 N), but this force was within an acceptable injection force threshold, 80 N. These preliminary results indicate combination paste should be further developed into a clinically useful adjunctive local delivery system for infection prevention.