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Hemolymph C1qDC promotes the phagocytosis of oyster Crassostrea gigas hemocytes by interacting with the membrane receptor β-integrin

Lv, Zhao, Wang, Lingling, Jia, Zhihao, Sun, Jiejie, Wang, Weilin, Liu, Zhaoqun, Qiu, Limei, Wang, Mengqiang, Song, Linsheng
Developmental and comparative immunology 2019 v.98 pp. 42-53
Crassostrea gigas, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio splendidus, cell membranes, hemocytes, lipid A, opsonins, oysters, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, phagocytosis, receptors, surface plasmon resonance
Phagocytosis constitutes a conserved cellular process for multicellular animals to ingest or engulf other cells or particles, which is facilitated by the use of opsonins to bind foreign particles and interact with cell surface receptors. The invertebrate secreted C1q domain-containing proteins (C1qDCs) have been reported to exhibit opsonic activity, while the detailed mechanisms of opsonization still remain unclear. In the present study, a C1qDC (designated as CgC1qDC-5) with opsonic activity was identified from the hemolymph of oyster Crassostrea gigas. CgC1qDC-5 exhibited the ability to bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Lipid A. It could also bind and agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio anguillarum, whereas the agglutinating activity could be inhibited by LPS. In addition, CgC1qDC-5 could enhance the phagocytosis of hemocytes toward E. coli, V. splendidus, and V. anguillarum. GST pull-down and surface plasmon resonance assays in vitro revealed that CgC1qDC-5 could interact with β-integrin (CgIntegrin). In vivo, CgC1qDC-5 was observed to bind hemocytes and co-localized with CgIntegrin on the cell membrane of hemocytes. Antibody-mediated blockage of CgIntegrin hindered the CgC1qDC-5-enhanced hemocytic phagocytosis. CgIntegrin also exhibited the ability to bind the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, V. splendidus, V. anguillarum and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and PAMP of LPS, but not Lipid A. A phagocytosis assay demonstrated that CgIntegrin could directly mediate phagocytosis toward bacteria as a phagocytic receptor. These results collectively suggested that CgC1qDC-5 could serve as an opsonin to recognize and bind bacteria, and subsequently interact with CgIntegrin on the hemocyte surface to enhance the CgIntegrin-mediated phagocytosis in oyster.