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An integrated assessment and spatial-temporal variation analysis of neonicotinoids in pollen and honey from noncrop plants in Zhejiang, China
- Tang, Tao, Cui, Wang, Wei, Dai, Shuqing, Yu, Zhengbiao, Lu, Quan, Zhang
- Environmental pollution 2019 v.250 pp. 397-406
- acetamiprid, climate, clothianidin, dinotefuran, farming systems, foraging, honey, honey bees, pollen, pollution, risk, China
- Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoids in pollen and honey (collected by honeybees) are likely to pose risks to honeybees. However, data on the integrated residue and spatial-temporal variation of neonicotinoids from noncrop plants, the principle sources of pollen for honey bees, are very limited, especially in China. In this study, we employed a novel assessment method based on the relative potency factor to calculate the integrated residue of seven neonicotinoids in pollen and honey samples collected from noncrop plants in 12 stations of Zhejiang province in three consecutive months. The integrated concentration of neonicotinoids (IMIRPF) ranged from no detected (ND) to 34.93 ng/g in pollen and ND to 8.51 ng/g in honey. Acetamiprid showed the highest detection frequency of 41.7%, followed by clothianidin (33.3%) and dinotefuran (22.2%). The highest IMIRPF occurred in April for stations in the fringe areas of Zhejiang province, whereas for stations in the central areas of Zhejiang province, the IMIRPF in May was relatively higher than the other two months. In terms of spatial change, the pollution variation of pollen samples in Lin'an—Tonglu—Pujiang was relative highly polluted—lightly polluted—highly polluted. For honey samples, spatial variation showed a single trend, and peak values were found in Wenzhou, which may be attributed to the local climate and farming practices. This fundamental information will be helpful to understand the effects of neonicotinoids on honeybees foraging habits.