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Autophagy protects murine macrophages from β-cypermethrin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity via the reduction of oxidation stress

He, Bingnan, Wang, Xia, Zhu, Jianbo, Kong, Baida, Wei, Lai, Jin, Yuanxiang, Fu, Zhengwei
Environmental pollution 2019 v.250 pp. 416-425
acetylcysteine, adenosine triphosphate, agonists, antioxidants, autophagy, computer simulation, cytotoxicity, electron transport chain, immunotoxicity, macrophages, membrane potential, mice, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial membrane, oxidative stress, protective effect, pyrethrins, rapamycin
The immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroid (SPs) has garnered much attention, and our previous research demonstrated that β-CYP causes immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in macrophages. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were exposed to β-CYP. The results showed that β-CYP elevated intracellular ROS levels in both RAW 264.7 cells and PMs. Exposure to β-CYP also caused mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular ATP level and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in the two cell types. In addition, exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to β-CYP for 12 h and 24 h enhanced autophagy, with elevated Beclin1, Rab7, Lamp1 and LC3-II expression levels, while 48 h of exposure attenuated autophagy. In contrast, exposure of PMs to β-CYP for 12 h promoted autophagy, whereas exposure for 24 h and 48 h impaired autophagy. Cotreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), partially blocked the reduced MMP, intracellular ATP level and autophagy disturbance. Moreover, cotreatment with an autophagy agonist, rapamycin (RAPA), partially blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the two cell types, whereas cotreatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), augmented the abovementioned toxic effects. Furthermore, mitochondrial ROS levels in both RAW 264.7 cells and PMs were elevated by exposure to β-CYP, and molecular docking showed that β-CYP docked with mouse respiratory chain complex I by binding to the ND2, ND4, and ND5 subunits of the protein complex. Taken together, the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that oxidative stress partially mediates mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy disturbance upon exposure to β-CYP in macrophages, and autophagy plays a protective role against the toxic effects.