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Effect of sodium concentration on mobilization and fate of trace metals in standard OECD soil
- Pontoni, Ludovico, Race, Marco, van Hullebusch, Eric D., Fabbricino, Massimiliano, Esposito, Giovanni, Pirozzi, Francesco
- Environmental pollution 2019 v.250 pp. 839-848
- aluminum, cadmium, colloids, copper, irrigation water, leachates, leaching, nickel, organic matter, sodicity, sodium, topsoil, zinc
- The effect of different Na concentrations on the fate of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) in standard OECD soil was evaluated by performing soil leaching column experiments. Five Na concentrations added in synthetic irrigation water (0, 1, 5, 10, 50 mM) were studied in order to evaluate the fate of the metals contained in both the irrigation water leachate and the soil layer. In all experiments, metals mostly accumulated on the top soil layer (0–0.5 cm), at variable concentrations according to the Na content in the artificial irrigation water. Nevertheless, concentration peaks of metal contamination occurred at different sampling time in the soil leachates depending on the metal and on influent water sodicity. Peaks of metals in the leachate appeared simultaneously with the release of organic matter and/or release of Al, suggesting significant involvement of colloids in metals transport. Sodium concentration (10–50 mM) was demonstrated to highly reduce colloidal mobilization leading to the accumulation of more than 95% of the influent metal in the top soil layer. Conversely, low Na concentrations (1–5 mM) favored colloidal transport leading to the recovery of metals in the soil leachates.