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Susceptibility of porcine IPI-2I intestinal epithelial cells to infection with swine enteric coronaviruses

Wang, Xunlei, Fang, Liurong, Liu, Shudan, Ke, Wenting, Wang, Dang, Peng, Guiqing, Xiao, Shaobo
Veterinary microbiology 2019 v.233 pp. 21-27
Deltacoronavirus, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus, cell lines, cytopathogenicity, diarrhea, epithelial cells, ileum, intestinal mucosa, jejunum, mixed infection, models, pathogens, piglets, viruses
Swine enteric coronavirus (CoV) is an important group of pathogens causing diarrhea in piglets. At least four kinds of swine enteric CoVs have been identified, including transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and the emerging HKU2-like porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV). The small intestines, particularly the jejunum and ileum, are the most common targets of these four CoVs in vivo, and co-infections by these CoVs are frequently observed in clinically infected pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of the porcine ileum epithelial cell line, IPI-2I, to different swine enteric CoVs. We found that IPI-2I cells are highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, and PEAV, as demonstrated by cytopathic effect and virus multiplication. However, only a small number of cells could be infected by PEDV, possibly due to the heterogeneity of IPI-2I cells. A homogeneous cell line, designated IPI-FX, obtained from IPI-2I cells by sub-cloning with limited serial dilutions, was found to be highly susceptible to PEDV. Furthermore, IPI-FX cells were also highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, as well as PEAV. Thus, this sub-cloned IPI-FX cell line is an ideal cell model to study the mechanisms of infection, particularly co-infections of swine enteric CoVs.