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Chloroplast genome of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae): Comparative analyses and identification of mutational hotspots

Abdullah,, Mehmood, Furrukh, Shahzadi, Iram, Waseem, Shahid, Mirza, Bushra, Ahmed, Ibrar, Waheed, Mohammad Tahir
Genomics 2019
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibiscus syriacus, RNA editing, amino acids, chloroplast genome, genes, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
Previous studies to resolve phylogenetic and taxonomic discrepancies of Hibiscus remained inconclusive. Here, we report chloroplast genome sequence of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis chloroplast genome was 160,951 bp, comprising of large single copy (89,509 bp) and small single copy (20,246 bp) regions, separated by IRa and IRb (25,598 bp each). The genome contained 130 genes including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNAs and 8 ribosomal RNAs. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes revealed similar structure among 12 species within family Malvaceae. Evolutionary rates of 77 protein-coding genes showed 95% similarities. Analyses of codon usage, amino acid frequency, putative RNA editing sites, and repeats showed a great extent of similarities between Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus syriacus. We identified 30 mutational hotpots including psbZ-trnG, trnK-rps16, trnD-trnY, trnW-trnP, rpl33-rps18, petG-trnW, trnS-trnG, trnH-psbA, atpB-rbcL, and rpl32-trnL that might be used as polymorphic and robust markers to resolve phylogenetic discrepancies in genus Hibiscus.