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A TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR to differentiate porcine epidemic diarrhea virus virulent strains from attenuated vaccine strains

Liu, Jing, Li, Li-min, Han, Jiu-qaun, Sun, Tai-ran, Zhao, Xue, Xu, Rui-tao, Song, Qin-ye
Molecular and cellular probes 2019 v.45 pp. 37-42
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, antigens, death, diarrhea, epidemiological studies, fluorescent antibody technique, genes, immunity, intestines, live vaccines, lymph nodes, nucleotide sequences, pathogens, piglets, plasmids, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, sequence deletion, sows, virulence, virulent strains, viruses, vomiting
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an important pathogen causing severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and death in sucking piglets. Attenuated vaccines have been used widely in sows in order to protect piglets through passive lactogenic immunity. Rapid and sensitive detection methods for differentiating attenuated vaccine strains from virulent ones are essential and practical in PEDV prevention and control. Based on the deletion mutation in ORF3 gene sequence, a TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative PCR (TaqMan qPCR) was developed to distinguish PEDV virulent strains from attenuated vaccine ones in this study. The TaqMan qPCR could specifically detect PEDV virulent strain but not attenuated vaccine strain and other viruses. At least 37 DNA copies and PEDV of 0.995 TCID50 could be detected by TaqMan qPCR. The reproducibility was evaluated using various dilution of plasmids carrying PEDV ORF3 gene and virulent PEDV, and the inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 0.44%. The TaqMan qPCR was further applied to detect 38 samples including intestines and their contents, fecal swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect PEDV-specific antigen. PEDV positive rates were 31.58% (12/38) and 26.32% (10/38) by TaqMan PCR and IFA, respectively, which suggested that the former was more sensitive than the latter. The TaqMan qPCR based on PEDV ORF3 gene could be a valuable tool in diagnose of porcine epidemic diarrhea and in molecular epidemiological study of the virulent PEDV.