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Pulses for bread fortification: A necessity or a choice?

Boukid, Fatma, Zannini, Emanuele, Carini, Eleonora, Vittadini, Elena
Trends in food science & technology 2019 v.88 pp. 416-428
amino acids, biodiversity, breadmaking quality, breads, byproducts, carbohydrates, carbon, developed countries, dietary fiber, environmental impact, food fortification, food security, minerals, phytochemicals, protein intake, protein sources, proteins, seeds, sustainable agriculture, vitamins, water footprint
Pulses are an affordable source of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and particularly proteins. These nutritious seeds greatly contribute to food security, sustainable agriculture, biodiversity and environmental changes mitigation. Pulses are, indeed, a protein source with low carbon and water footprints. Interest in the use of pulses and their by-products in bread formulation has been mounting in recent years due to their high nutritional and functional values. Bread is one of the oldest and most consumed food worldwide, but it has an unbalanced amino-acids profile.This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the compositional and nutritional attributes of pulses as well as their impact on bread-making quality. Keeping in mind that forthcoming challenges should be overcome to formulate a high-quality bread based on pulses-wheat blends.Fortifying bread with pulses will secure a better amino-acids profile and a higher protein intake favoring the ensurement of a balanced diet to a wide population with low environmental impact. Hence, pulses consumption is a necessity more than a choice for developing and developed countries with no exception.