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Epidemiology of massive hepatocellular carcinoma in dogs: A 4-year retrospective study

Leela-arporn, R., Ohta, H., Nagata, N., Sasaoka, K., Tamura, M., Dermlim, A., Nisa, K., Morishita, K., Sasaki, N., Nakamura, K., Takagi, S., Hosoya, K., Takiguchi, M.
The veterinary journal 2019 v.248 pp. 74-78
Beagle, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, confidence interval, dogs, epidemiology, hepatoma, hospitals, hyperadrenocorticism, hypercalcemia, medical records, multivariate analysis, odds ratio, retrospective studies, risk factors, Japan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour in dogs. However, the clinical features and risk factors of HCC have not been confirmed. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical features and risk factors for canine HCC. Medical records of 44 dogs diagnosed with HCC at Hokkaido University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2013 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. All dogs evaluated at the teaching hospital during the study period were used as the reference population for breed, age, sex predispositions or possible related factors for HCC, including concurrent disorders. Clinical characteristics of HCC were determined using propensity score matching analysis.The prevalence of HCC diagnosis was 0.96%. Multivariate analysis revealed that dogs diagnosed with HCC were significantly older (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.07–1.33) than the reference population. Welsh Corgis (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.56–8.67) and Beagles (OR, 4.33; 95% CI, 1.58–11.90) were significantly predisposed to HCC. Twenty-seven of 44 dogs with HCC had at least one concurrent disorder. The most common concurrent disorder was hyperadrenocorticism (n = 10), and the adjusted odds of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs with HCC were 4.13 higher than those of the reference population (95% CI, 1.95–8.76). Propensity score matching analysis revealed that thrombocytosis (n = 30/43), increased alanine aminotransferase (n = 41/44), increased alkaline phosphatase (n = 42/44), and hypercalcemia (n = 13/32) were significantly associated with HCC diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that Welsh Corgis and Beagles are breeds with a predisposition for HCC and that hyperadrenocorticism might be a potential risk factor.