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Comparative cytogenetics of the ACPT clade (Anacampserotaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, and Talinaceae): a very diverse group of the suborder Cactineae, Caryophyllales

Marinho, Maria Angélica Oliveira, Souza, Gustavo, Felix, Leonardo P., De Carvalho, Reginaldo
Protoplasma 2019 v.256 no.3 pp. 805-814
Anacampserotaceae, Cactaceae, Montiaceae, Portulaca, Talinaceae, chromosome number, chromosomes, haploidy, karyotyping, monophyly, topology
The clade ACPT (Anacampserotaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, and Talinaceae) is the most diverse lineage of the subordem Cactineae. The relationships between these families are still uncertain, with different topologies suggested by phylogenetic analyses with several combinations of markers. Different basic numbers (x) have been suggested for each family and for the subord, often in a contestable way. Comparative cytogenetic has helped to understand the evolutionary relationships of phylogenetically poorly resolved groups, as well as their mechanisms of karyotype evolution. The karyotype evolution in representatives of Cactineae was analyzed, focusing on the ACPT clade, through the analysis of chromosome number in a phylogenetic bias. The phylogeny obtained showed a well-resolved topology with support for the monophyly of the five families. Although a chromosomal number is known for less than 30% of the Cactineae species, the analyses revealed a high karyotype variability, from 2n = 8 to 2n = 110. The analysis of character reconstruction of the ancestral haploid numbers (p) suggested p = 12 for Cactineae, with distinct basic numbers for the clade family ACPT: Cactaceae and Montiaceae (p = 11), Talinaceae (p = 12), and Anacampserotaceae and Portulacaceae (p = 9). Talinaceae, Anacampserotaceae, and Cactaceae were stable, while Portulaca and Montiaceae were karyotypically variable. The chromosome evolution of this group was mainly due to events of descending disploidy and poliploidy. Our data confirm that the low phylogenetic resolution among the families of the ACPT clade is due to a divergence of this clade in a short period of time. However, each of these families can be characterized by basic chromosome numbers and unique karyotype evolution events.