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Bixa orellana L. (achiote) tissue culture: a review

Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A., Zeng, Songjun, Godoy-Hernández, Gregorio, Rivera-Madrid, Renata, Dobránszki, Judit
In vitro cellular & developmental biology 2019 v.55 no.3 pp. 231-241
natural dyes, Bixa orellana, hypocotyls, plantlets, stems, bioreactors, production technology, acclimation, cotyledons, somatic embryogenesis, textile industry, in vitro studies, aril, roots, antioxidants, leaves, tissue culture
Bixa orellana L. (achiote) is a commercially important plant grown for its natural dye annatto, which is derived from the arils of seeds. Annatto, which contains the antioxidant bixin, is used in food, cosmetic, and textile industries as a natural colorant. Even though B. orellana can be propagated by seed, established tissue culture and in vitro propagation protocols exist for this plant. Organogeneses, both axillary and adventitious, as well as somatic embryogenesis, have been successfully induced from different explant sources, including cotyledons, hypocotyls, roots, stems, and leaves, and effective acclimatization protocols exist for regenerated plantlets. This present mini-review highlights the achievements in the tissue culture of achiote. In addition to using in vitro techniques for the clonal propagation of elite plants, knowledge from these protocols could be used to establish mass production systems, such as bioreactors, to facilitate year-round bixin harvest.