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Genetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains between 2002 and 2016 reveals PCV2 mutant predominating in porcine population in Guangxi, China

Yao, Jing, Qin, Yanran, Zeng, Yue, Ouyang, Kang, Chen, Ying, Huang, Weijian, Wei, Zuzhang
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 118
Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-2, animal tissues, genetic analysis, genetic variation, genome, mutants, open reading frames, phylogeny, sequence alignment, subgenotype, swine, viruses, China
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus 2-associated disease (PCVAD) is acknowledged as one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the genetic diversity of PCV2 in the porcine population of Guangxi, China. METHODS: The full length genome and open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of 95 PCV2 strains collected from the tissues and sera of pigs that had either died as a result of PCVAD or did not exhibit disease symptoms were analyzed. RESULTS: The results of multiple sequence alignments showed that there is considerable diversity among the PCV2 ORF2 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete genome showed that current PCV2 strains in this study could be divided into PCV2a (1/95), PCV2b (39/95), PCV2d (43/95), PCV2e (10/95) and PCV2h (2/95). Among the 5 sub-genotypes, PCV2b was dominant in the porcine population from 2002 to 2008. The newly identified sub-genotype, PCV2d, was seen from 2003 and has increased every year. PCV2b and PCV2d formed two predominant genetic groups circulating in southern China between 2009 and 2013 and the sub-genotype PCV2d has become the dominant virus in China since 2014. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the complex genetic diversity of PCV2 and improves our understanding regarding the epidemiological trends of PCV2 sub-genotypes in China.