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Sustainability assessment of the groundwater quality in the Western India to achieve urban water security
- Saraswat, Chitresh, Kumar, Pankaj, Dasgupta, Rajarshi, Avtar, Ram, Bhalani, Prashant
- Applied water science 2019 v.9 no.4 pp. 73
- United Nations, aquifers, chlorides, cities, electrical conductivity, groundwater, hardness, hydrogeochemistry, irrigation, irrigation water, isoelectric point, land use, nitrates, pH, permeability, public water supply, pumps, sulfates, sustainable development, water quality, water security, water treatment, wells, India
- Achieving water security and availability for all is among the principle agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding cities, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The paper conducts an exploratory investigation in the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby assesses the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public water supply in the Indian city of Surat. A total of 33 groundwater samples, selected on the basis of aquifer depth and land use signatures, were collected from open, bore, dug wells and hand pumps. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as hardness, electrical conductivity, Cl⁻, pH, SO₄²⁻ and NO₃⁻ concentrations. Based on the permeability index, result showed that 80% of the sampled groundwater quality falls under excellent class, i.e., category I with PI value ranging from 1 to 24%, whereas the rest 20% of the samples has fallen under good class, i.e., category II with PI value ranging from 25 to 75% on the suitability of water for irrigation. The results of this study outline the unsustainability of groundwater for direct consumption, especially without any improved on-site water treatment, but it is appropriate for the irrigation purposes.