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Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus type 2 in Vietnam from November 2016 to February 2018

Hoang, Minh, Lin, Wei-Hao, Le, Van Phan, Nga, Bui Thi To, Chiou, Ming-Tang, Lin, Chao-Nan
Virology journal 2019 v.16 no.1 pp. 52
Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, diarrhea, dogs, genes, genetic similarity, genetic variation, genotype, genotyping, hemorrhage, intestines, molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, prototypes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, China, Taiwan, Vietnam
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in the late 1970s; it causes intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Since its emergence, CPV-2 has been replaced with new genetic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). Currently, information about the genotype prevalence of CPV-2 in Vietnam is limited. In the present study, we investigated the genotype prevalence and distribution of CPV-2 in the three regions of Vietnam. METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected from 260 dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection from northern, central, and southern Vietnam from November 2016 to February 2018. All samples were identified as parvovirus positive by real-time PCR, and further genotyping was performed using a SimpleProbe® real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Of the 260 Vietnamese CPV-2 isolates, 6 isolates (2.31%) were identified as CPV-2a, 251 isolates (96.54%) were identified as CPV-2c and 3 isolates (1.15%) were untypable using the SimpleProbe® real-time PCR assay. In northern Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 2.97% (3/101) and 97.3% (98/101), respectively. In central Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 1.11% (1/90) and 98.89% (89/90), respectively. In southern Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 3.03% (2/66) and 96.97% (64/66), respectively. CPV-2b was not observed in this study. The VP2 genes of CPV-2c in Vietnam are more genetically similar to those of CPV-2c strains in China and Taiwan than to those of prototype CPV-2c strains (FJ222821) or the first Vietnamese CPV-2c (AB120727). CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence that CPV-2c is the most prevalent variant in Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the recent Vietnamese CPV-2c isolates share a common evolutionary origin with Asian CPV-2c strains.