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Biotechnological production and applications of statins

Barrios-González, Javier, Miranda, Roxana U.
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2010 v.85 no.4 pp. 869-883
risk, biosynthesis, genetics, Penicillium citrinum, solid state fermentation, submerged fermentation, cholesterol, monacolins, methodology, genes, stroke, biotransformation, blood, Aspergillus terreus, lovastatin
Statins are a group of extremely successful drugs that lower cholesterol levels in blood; decreasing the risk of heath attack or stroke. In recent years, statins have also been reported to have other biological activities and numerous potential therapeutic uses. Natural statins are lovastatin and compactin, while pravastatin is derived from the latter by biotransformation. Simvastatin, the second leading statin in the market, is a lovastatin semisynthetic derivative. Lovastatin is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus strains, and compactin by Penicillium citrinum. Lovastatin and compactin are produced industrially by liquid submerged fermentation, but can also be produced by the emerging technology of solid-state fermentation, that displays some advantages. Advances in the biochemistry and genetics of lovastatin have allowed the development of new methods for the production of simvastatin. This lovastatin derivative can be efficiently synthesized from monacolin J (lovastatin without the side chain) by a process that uses the Aspergillus terreus enzyme acyltransferase LovD. In a different approach, A. terreus was engineered, using combinational biosynthesis on gene lovF, so that the resulting hybrid polyketide synthase is able to in vivo synthesize 2,2-dimethylbutyrate (the side chain of simvastatin). The resulting transformant strains can produce simvastatin (instead of lovastatin) by direct fermentation.