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Physicochemical characterisation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunk syrup from the sap of different storage period as potential sweetener

Sulaiman, Syazana, Kamilah, Hanisah, Mahmood, Kaiser, Hashim, Rokiah, Karim, Alias A., Ariffin, Fazilah
Journal of food measurement & characterization 2019 v.13 no.2 pp. 1011-1019
Elaeis guineensis, ambient temperature, antioxidant activity, brix, color, free radical scavengers, glucose, maple syrup, nutritive value, sap, storage time, sucrose, sweeteners, total soluble solids
Sap from the trunk of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was processed into syrup in this study. Physicochemical properties of syrups produced from the sap of freshly cut oil palm trunks (OPT₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ) and sap of trunks stored for 60 days (OPT₆₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ) at ambient temperature were compared to nipa palm syrup (Nₛyᵣᵤₚ), maple syrup (Mₛyᵣᵤₚ), and two commercial glucose syrups (G₁ₛyᵣᵤₚ and G₂ₛyᵣᵤₚ). The total soluble solids for the syrups (OPT₀ₛy, OPT₆₀ₛy, Nₛy, Mₛy, G₁ₛy and G₂ₛy) were in the range of 66 to 82 ˚Brix. The sugar analysis indicated that glucose was the main sugar for OPT₀ₛy and OPT₆₀ₛy as 367 and 300 mg/g, respectively, whereby sucrose was the foremost sugar for Nₛy and Mₛy. The colour of the syrups was ranked from the darkest to the lightest; OPT₆₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ > OPT₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ > Mₛyᵣᵤₚ > Nₛyᵣᵤₚ > G₁ₛyᵣᵤₚ > G₂ₛyᵣᵤₚ. OPT₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ and OPT₆₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ achieved reducing capacity of 825 and 886 mg GAE/100 g, respectively, significantly higher than other syrups. The free radical scavenging activities of OPT₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ and OPT₆₀ₛyᵣᵤₚ were 74% and 70%, respectively. In conclusion, the oil palm trunk syrup has similar physicochemical properties with the commercial syrups, and it has the potential to be an alternative to the commercial sweeteners with added nutritional benefits.