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Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Do Not Adversely Impact Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Tomatoes Consumed with Different Nanoemulsions: In Vitro Digestion Study
- Li, Qian, Fu, Yinxin, McClements, David Julian
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.17 pp. 4931-4939
- beverages, bioavailability, carotenoids, droplets, emulsifiers, gastrointestinal system, in vitro digestion, lipid metabolism, lipids, micelles, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, polysorbates, sodium caseinate, titanium dioxide, tomatoes, vegetable consumption, whey protein
- Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is used as an additive to whiten some foods and beverages that contain lipid nanoparticles. We therefore investigated the combined influence of TiO₂ and lipid nanoparticles on carotenoid bioaccessibility from tomatoes. TiO₂ nanoparticles (d = 167 nm) were combined with nanoemulsions (d ≈ 150 nm) stabilized by various emulsifiers: Tween 80, whey protein, or sodium caseinate. The mixed systems were then mixed with tomatoes and passed through a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The emulsifier type significantly influenced carotenoid bioaccessibility (p < 0.05), mainly because of differences in the ability of the emulsifier-coated lipid droplets to extract carotenoids from tomatoes and form mixed micelles. TiO₂ addition did not impact lipid digestion and carotenoid bioaccessibility (p > 0.05). These results suggested that carotenoid bioaccessibility was not influenced by TiO₂ addition but did depend on the type of emulsifier used to stabilize lipid nanoparticles.