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Additive stress of normobaric hypoxic conditioning to improve body mass loss and cardiometabolic markers in individuals with overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Ramos-Campo, Domingo J., Girard, Olivier, Pérez, Andrés, Rubio-Arias, Jacobo Á.
Physiology & behavior 2019 v.207 pp. 28-40
body mass index, databases, hips, humans, low density lipoprotein, meta-analysis, muscles, obesity, randomized clinical trials, sea level, systematic review, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerols, waist
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if hypoxic conditioning, compared to similar training near sea level, maximizes body mass loss and further improves cardiometabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals. A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases (up to January 2019) was performed. This analysis included randomized controlled trials with humans with overweight or obesity assessing the effects of HC on body mass loss or cardiometabolic markers. A subgroup analysis was performed to examine if HC effects differed between individuals with overweight or obesity. 13 articles (336 participants) qualified for inclusion. HC significantly decreased body mass (p = .01), fat mass (p = .04), waist/hip ratio (p < .001), waist (p < .001), LDL (p = .01), diastolic (p < .01) and systolic blood pressure (p < .01) with these effects not being larger than equivalent normoxic interventions. There were trends towards higher triglycerides decrement (p = .06) and higher muscle mass gain in hypoxic (p = .08) compared with normoxic condition. Also, the two BMI categories displayed no difference in the magnitude of the responses. Compared to normoxic equivalent, HC provides greater reductions in triglycerides and greater muscle growth, while body mass changes are similar. In addition, HC responses were essentially similar between individuals with overweight or obesity.