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Evaluation and correction on quinones’ quantification errors: Derived from the coexistence of different quinone species and pH-sensitive feature

Li, Meng, Wang, Dong, Liu, Xiaoduo, Sun, Jingmei
Chemosphere 2019 v.230 pp. 67-75
absorbance, dissociation, equations, models, oxidation, pH, quinones, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
Quinones are becoming an essential tool for refractory organics treatment, while their quantification may be not well-considered. In this paper, two kinds of potential errors in quantification were evaluated in multiple pH conditions. They were derived from the coexistence of oxidized/reduced quinone species (Type I) and pH-sensitive feature (Type II), respectively. These errors would remarkably influence the accuracy of quantification while they haven't been emphasized. Thus, to elaborate the relationship between the two types of errors and the absorbance or pH conditions, three typical quinones [Anthraquinone-1-sulfonate (α-AQS), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and lawsone] were selected and their acid dissociation coefficients (pKa) as well as UV–Vis spectra were determined. Results revealed that, for Type I, the relative error (RE) of α-AQS concentration would exceed the limit (5%) when reduced α-AQS was below 48% of total α-AQS. Similar results were found for lawsone. However, the RE can be eliminated by the equation established in this paper. For Type II, the pH-sensitive feature was related to the pKa values of quinones. Absorbances of α-AQS and lawsone would change remarkably with pH variation. Therefore, a model for correction was established. Analog data showed high consistency with experimental data [r = 0.995 (n = 25, p < 0.01) and r = 0.997 (n = 36, p < 0.01), for lawsone and α-AQS respectively]. Especially, the determination of AQDS concentrations was noticed to be pH-independent at 437 nm under pH 4.00 to 9.18 conditions. Based on these features, a comprehensive data solution was proposed for handling these errors.