U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

T929I and K1774N mutation pair and M918L single mutation identified in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of pyrethroid-resistant Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Japan

Jouraku, Akiya, Kuwazaki, Seigo, Iida, Hiroyuki, Ohta, Izumi, Kusano, Hisao, Takagi, Motonori, Yokoyama, Tomoya, Kubota, Naoya, Shibao, Manabu, Shirotsuka, Kanako, Iwasaki, Akeo, Takezawa, Yuji, Takeda, Mitsuyoshi
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.158 pp. 77-87
Thrips tabaci, amino acids, gene expression regulation, genes, genotyping, monitoring, point mutation, pyrethrins, sequence analysis, sodium channels, Japan
Pyrethroid-resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, has been reported in many countries including Japan. Identifying factors of the resistance is important to correctly monitoring the resistance in field populations. To identify pyrethroid-resistance related genes in T. tabaci in Japan, we performed RNA-Seq analysis of seven T. tabaci strains including two pyrethroid-resistant and five pyrethroid-susceptible strains. We identified a pair of single point mutations, T929I and K1774N, introducing two amino acid mutations, in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, a pyrethroid target gene, in the two resistant strains. The K1774N is a newly identified mutation located in the fourth repeat domain of the sodium channel. Genotyping analysis of field-collected populations showed that most of the T. tabaci individuals in resistant populations carried the mutation pair, indicating that the mutation pair is closely associated with pyrethroid-resistance in Japan. Another resistance-related mutation, M918L, was also identified in part of the resistant populations. Most of the individuals with the mutation pair were arrhenotokous while all individuals with the M918L single mutation were thelytokous. The result of differentially expressed gene analysis revealed a small number of up-regulated detoxification genes in each resistant strain which might be involved in resistance to pyrethroid. However, no up-regulated detoxification genes common to the two resistant strains were detected. Our results indicate that the mutation pair in the sodium channel gene is the most important target for monitoring pyrethroid-resistance in T. tabaci, and that pyrethroid-resistant arrhenotokous individuals with the mutation pair are likely to be widely distributed in Japan.