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Aroclor 1254 inhibits vasotocinergic pathways related to osmoregulatory and stress functions in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758)

Skrzynska, Arleta Krystyna, Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo, Gozdowska, Magdalena, Kulczykowska, Ewa, Mancera, Juan Miguel, Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio
Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.212 pp. 98-109
Sparus aurata, aroclors, cortisol, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, fish, gene expression, hypothalamus, kidneys, liver, messenger RNA, metabolites, seawater, stress response
The present study assesses the response of vasotocinergic system in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) after administering two doses of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 (15 or 50 μg g−1 fresh body mass). Seven days post-administration, eight fish of each experimental group were sampled, and the remaining animals were challenged with a hyperosmotic stress by being transferred from seawater (36 ppt) to high salinity water (55 ppt) and being sampled 3 days post-transfer. Aroclor 1254 affected gene expression of avt, together with Avt concentrations in pituitary and plasma, inhibiting the stimulation observed in vasotocinergic system after hyperosmotic challenge. This was noted by the accumulation of Avt at hypophyseal level as well as by its undetectable values in plasma. Hyperosmotic transfer significantly changed branchial avtrv1a, avtrv2, atp1a and cftr mRNA expression levels in control fish, while in Aroclor 1254-treated fish they remained mostly unchanged. This desensitization also occurred for avtrs in hypothalamus, caudal kidney and liver. In addition, an enhancement in plasma cortisol concentration, together with the orchestration of several players of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Interrenal axis (crh, crhbp, trh, star), was also observed mostly at the highest dose used (50 μg g−1 body mass), affecting plasma and hepatic metabolites. Our results demonstrated that Aroclor 1254 compromises the hypoosmoregulatory function of vasotocinergic system in S. aurata, also inducing a concomitant stress response. In summary, this study demonstrates that Aroclor 1254 can be considered an important endocrine disruptor in relation with the correct arrangement of vasotocinergic, metabolic and stress pathways after their stimulation by transfer to hyperosmotic environments.