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Gliadin genotypes worldwide for spring wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) 2. Strong differentiation of polymorphism between countries and regions of origin

Metakovsky, E., Melnik, V.A., Pascual, L., Wrigley, C.W.
Journal of cereal science 2019 v.87 pp. 311-317
Triticum aestivum, alleles, breeding, cluster analysis, cultivars, genetic distance, genetic variation, genotype, germplasm, gliadin, loci, natural selection, spring wheat, temporal variation, Australia, Manitoba, Ontario, USSR
Genotypes of 290 cultivars from ten countries (four continents) of spring wheat Triticum aestivum, were analyzed through the identification of alleles at the gliadin-encoding (Gli) loci. The group of cultivars bred in one country during the 20th century might be characterized by its level of genetic diversity (H) and a specific set of alleles. Strong differences between genotypes of cultivars bred in different countries were confirmed by cluster analysis of genetic distances. Genotypes of cultivars bred in regions of the same country might differ, but they always composed a single cluster and strongly differed from genotypes from other countries or regions. Therefore, world polymorphism of spring wheat germplasm of the 20th century is highly structured and differentiated between countries and their regions. This differentiation seems to be mainly a result of natural selection acting in different ways in different eco-climatic conditions of breeding and propagation. At a regional scale, statistically significant temporal changes in frequency of some gliadin alleles and a tendency to temporal decrease of overall genetic diversity were discovered in cultivars bred in each of seven regions studied in Australia, Canada and the former USSR. In regions of Canada (provinces of Manitoba and Ontario) and of the former USSR (Saratov), a statistically significant decay of the genetic diversity of cultivars bred during the 20th century was discovered. However, the influence of breeders' selection for end-use wheat quality on the wheat genetic diversity was the least, if any.