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Evaluation of flow patterns in vertical slot fishways with different slot positions based on a comparison passage experiment for juvenile grass carp

Li, Guangning, Sun, Shuangke, Zhang, Chao, Liu, Haitao, Zheng, Tiegang
Ecological engineering 2019 v.133 pp. 148-159
Ctenopharyngodon idella, fish, fish behavior, fish ladders, fluid mechanics, juveniles, migratory behavior, models, rivers
Flow patterns (FPs) are different due to different fishway structures and different boundary conditions in a river. FPs can greatly affect fish passage efficiency along the entire fishway. In this study, experimental hydraulic modelling is combined with the study of fish behavior in a physical model of a vertical slot fishway (VSF) with different slot positions and varying pool lateral baffle length (P) to width (B) ratios. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to help understand the detailed hydraulic structures. Three distinct FPs are studied. When P/B < 0.2 and a short baffle was used, the principal flow was along the side wall with almost no curve to the next slot, and this was termed FP1. When 0.2 < P/B < 0.34 and a medium size baffle was used, the principal flow was in the center position. Hence, the principal flow leaving the slot entered the pools as a curved jet that dispersed into the pool center before converging again towards the next slot, and this was termed FP2. When P/B > 0.4 and a long baffle was used, the jet had a curved form along the opposite side wall, and this was termed FP3. Comparison experiments are conducted on the three FPs, and 82 to 90 trials are conducted to compare juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reactions to each FP. An analysis of the fish behavior in the model clearly demonstrated that the fish tended to need less time to pass in FP2 than in the other two FPs. FP2, with the principal flow in the center position, tended to be more suitable for fish migration. In addition, using an analysis of the less efficient FPs, it was found that the velocity gradient may act as an important migration behavior motivator, and that a recirculation zone too close to the downstream slot could increase the risk of downstream flush. It is suggested that further studies should investigate the behaviors of different fish species in the three typical FPs.