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Essential oil composition of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) cv. Saturn depending on nitrogen nutrition and plant development phases in raw material cultivated for industrial use

Skubij, Natalia, Dzida, Katarzyna
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.135 pp. 260-270
Satureja hortensis, carvacrol, environmental factors, essential oils, flowering, gamma-terpinene, lipid content, nitrogen, nutrition, ontogeny, raw materials
Environmental factors such as mineral nutrition as well as plant ontogeny are the major determinants of the quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) in medicinal and herbal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of nitrogen and plant development phases on the yield of fresh mass and the yield of essential oil, content and chemical composition of essential oil from summer savory cv. Saturn cultivated for industrial use. The two-factor experiment was carried out in a random-block design with five replications. The nitrogen dose (0; 4; 8; 12; 16 g N m−2) and the plant development phase (the beginning of flowering and full flowering) were the experimental factors. There was a significant effect of the nitrogen dose and plant development phase on the essential oil content of the summer savory. The content of essential oil in the summer savory herb was in the range of 2.52–5.89%. The essential oil was shown to contain four dominant components, i.e. carvacrol, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinene, and para-cymene. The highest carvacrol content was noted for the lowest nitrogen dose in the phase of full flowering of plants. Additionally, the highest parameters of the summer savory essential oil were obtained from plants harvested in the initial flowering stage.