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Pectin-decorated magnetite nanoparticles as both iron delivery systems and protective matrices for probiotic bacteria

Ghibaudo, Florencia, Gerbino, Esteban, Copello, Guillermo J., Campo Dall' Orto, Viviana, Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.180 pp. 193-201
Citrus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Lactobacillus plantarum, X-ray diffraction, adsorption, electrostatic interactions, hydrophilicity, intestines, iron, magnetite, nanoparticles, pH, particle size, pectins, probiotics, saliva, scanning electron microscopy, solvation, storage temperature, transmission electron microscopy, viability, zeta potential
The goal of this work was to investigate biophysical stability of iron-pectin nanoparticles and analyze the feasibility of using them as delivery systems for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized from 0.25M FeCl2/0.5 M FeCl3.6H2O, and coated with citrus pectins. Their physico-chemical properties [FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), ζ-potential, particle size, SEM, TEM] and their effect on bacterial stabilization (viability after freeze-drying/storage, stability when exposed to simulated gastro-intestinal conditions) were assessed.XRD indicated the almost exclusive presence of magnetite crystalline phases. FTIR spectra confirmed the adsorption of pectin on magnetite nanoparticles surface. SEM and TEM images evidenced agglomerated nanoparticles, and a morphological surface change after adsorption of pectin. DLS and ζ-potential results proved the solvation of the ionizable groups in the hydrophilic network which induced chain expansion and agglomeration.Iron from nanoparticles demonstrated to be non-toxic for microorganisms up to 1.00 mg/mL. Simulated saliva and gastric solutions prevented nanoparticles from dissolution. The higher pH of the intestinal conditions (solvated -COO- and Fe-O- groups) facilitated the dispersion and partial dissolution of nanoparticles. Pectins adsorption on magnetite nanoparticles significantly enhanced electrostatic repulsion, which aided the solvation of ionized iron forms. The soluble species diffused out from the aggregates, being detected in the simulated intestinal fluid. Regarding bacterial viability, no decays were observed neither when pectin-decorated nanoparticles were exposed to simulated fluids nor when stored at 4 °C for 60 days.The composites engineered in this work appear as adequate delivery systems for probiotic bacteria, whose target is the gut.