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Demand and supply-side carbon linkages of Turkish economy using hypothetical extraction method

Sajid, M. Jawad, Li, Xinchun, Cao, Qingren
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.228 pp. 264-275
carbon, carbon dioxide, electricity, emissions, issues and policy, models, sales, solar energy, water supply, wind power, Turkey (country)
Inter-industrial carbon linkage analysis tells us about the transfer of CO2 amongst sectors of a nation. Hypothetical extraction model which removes a target sector and compares the difference between actual and theoretical economies is a popular model for linkage analysis. Regardless of mounting evidence favoring simultaneous application of both Ghosh supply and Leontief demand for forward and backward linkages. Related studies have mostly calculated both upstream and downstream carbon linkages using only demand-driven Leontief inverse model. This research estimates inter-sectoral carbon linkages of Turkey from both demand and supply. Electricity, gas, and water had the highest total demand and supply carbon linkage. Extraction of backward and forward linkages of mixed services have the highest demand pull and supply push impact on rest of the blocks. It also had the highest amount of net pulled and pushed emissions. Production block had the highest intra-sectoral purchase emissions while electricity, gas, and water had the highest internal sales emissions. Wind and Solar PV are the cleanest energy sources for Electricity, gas, and water supply. A carbon demand and supply based policy diversifies emission responsibility and encourages mitigation of a block's entire upstream, downstream and intra-sectoral carbon chain.