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Metabolomics Assay Identified a Novel Virulence-Associated Siderophore Encoded by the High-Pathogenicity Island in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Xu, Guang, Guo, Hao, Lv, Haitao
Journal of proteome research 2019 v.18 no.5 pp. 2331-2336
aluminum, biochemical pathways, calcium, iron, isotopes, metabolites, metabolome, metabolomics, nickel, pathogenicity islands, phenotype, proteome, salicylic acid, siderophores, tandem mass spectrometry, uropathogenic Escherichia coli
To date, yersiniabactin remains the only identified siderophore encoded by the high pathogenicity island (HPI) in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). In the present study, we aim to discover and identify new siderophores in the HPI-dependent biosynthetic pathway using a combinational strategy of metabolomics and genetics. A global metabolome assay of wild-type UTI89, UTI89ΔybtS, and UTI89ΔybtS with the substrate addition of salicylic acid found numerous unknown metabolite features that were encoded by the HPI with an obvious substrate dependency on salicylic acid. One metabolite feature with m/z 307.0206 was shown to have a similar phenotype as yersiniabactin. Furthermore, isotope mass spectrum calculations and MS/MS annotations were combined to identify this metabolite as HPTzTn-COOH. HPTzTn-COOH was verified as a new siderophore in this study, and it was observed to have a robust capacity to chelate different metals, including Al³⁺, Ni²⁺, and Ca²⁺, in addition to binding Fe³⁺. Our data revealed that HPTzTn-COOH has a stronger diagnostic ability over the more conventionally used yersiniabactin, as characterized by its high production throughout UPEC strains harboring HPI. Altogether, our discoveries revise the siderophore family, and HPTzTn-COOH can be classified as an additional key siderophore along with yersiniabactin.