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Accessing the natural variation of the abundances of major lignans in the heartwood of Taiwania cryptomerioides by ¹H-NMR and LC-MS profiling
- Tsao, Nai-Wen, Pan, Shin-Hung, Chung, Jeng-Der, Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung, Wang, Sheng-Yang, Sun, Ying-Hsuan
- Holzforschung 2019 v.73 no.5 pp. 423-434
- Taiwania cryptomerioides, biosynthesis, environmental factors, enzymes, genetic factors, genotype, heartwood, heritability, lignans, linear models, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, prediction, principal component analysis, provenance, secondary metabolites, wood quality
- Lignans are major bioactive secondary metabolites, which are also formed in the heartwood (hW) of Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides). Their biosynthesis pathways are complex and involve many enzymes and intermediates. To evaluate the extent of the genetic components leading to the variety of lignans in Taiwania hW, 35 Taiwania genotypes of four provenances were surveyed using the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The metabolite profiles were statistically evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) and the general linear model (GLM). The broad-sense heritability (H²) was further evaluated by linear mixed model (LMM) analysis. It was demonstrated that the genetic factor is the major contributor to the abundance of lignans, though the environmental factor also has some effect on it. Among the metabolites detected by ¹H-NMR, lignans were the major compounds that exhibited high a H² (0.52–0.82), which was further verified by LC-MS. The conclusion is that ¹H-NMR spectroscopy is suitable for quick screenings, predictions and semi-quantitation of lignans. The high H² is also indicative of the lignan abundances as traits that can be genetically modified to achieve a significant wood quality improvement.