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Facile hydrothermal growth of VO₂ nanowire, nanorod and nanosheet arrays as binder free cathode materials for sodium batteries
- Wang, Hongkuan, Li, Wenzao, Fei, Huifang, Guo, Liping, Feng, Jinkui, Ci, Lijie, Xiong, Shenglin
- RSC advances 2016 v.6 no.17 pp. 14314-14320
- Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, batteries, cathodes, crystallization, electric vehicles, energy, foil, hot water treatment, nanorods, nanosheets, nanowires, scanning electron microscopy, sodium, titanium, transmission electron microscopy
- Owing to the natural abundance and low standard potential of sodium, sodium-ion batteries are now considered to be promising power systems for electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. Herein, for the first time, we report the synthesis of VO₂ nanowire, nanobelt and nanosheet arrays with preferential (110) orientation on conductive titanium foil by a simple time-dependent hydrothermal method. The morphological and crystallization evolution processes of these products are investigated via XRD, SEM, Raman and TEM in detail. The effect of VO₂ morphology on sodium storage performance is also probed by charge–discharge and EIS. Benefiting from the unique morphological features, the VO₂ nanowire array shows a superior cycle ability of 160 mA h g⁻¹ after 200 cycles and high rate ability even at 1 A g⁻¹.