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Solvent-free catalytic synthesis and optical properties of super-hard phase ultrafine carbon nitride nanowires with abundant surface active sites

Wang, Jilin, Zhang, Lulu, Long, Fei, Wang, Weimin, Gu, Yunle, Mo, Shuyi, Zou, Zhengguang, Fu, Zhengyi
RSC advances 2016 v.6 no.28 pp. 23272-23278
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, active sites, ammonium chloride, carbon nitride, catalytic activity, crystal structure, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, ferric oxide, growth models, melting, nanowires, photoluminescence, poly(vinyl chloride), raw materials, reaction mechanisms, reflectance, reflectance spectroscopy, surface area, transmission electron microscopy
High-quality ultrafine α/β-carbon nitride (α/β-C₃N₄) nanowires have been fabricated through a novel hot melt reduction synthetic method using polyvinylchloride ([–C₂H₃Cl–]ₙ), ammonium chloride (NH₄Cl) and ferric oxide (Fe₂O₃) as raw materials. The purity, structure, morphology, crystallinity and surface state of the as-prepared samples were investigated by FSEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, XRD, EDX, FTIR and XPS. The nanowires presented good crystallinity with a length range of 1–4 μm and an average diameter of about 10 nm. Every nanowire possessed a high specific surface area and rough surface with abundant exposed atoms/prominences, indicating that the surface structure will facilitate further surface modification, functionalization and related applications. In addition, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the nanowires have a wide band gap (4.38 eV) and obvious ultraviolet luminescence properties at the maximum emission peak of about 340 nm. A catalytic reaction mechanism and the growth model were also proposed to explain the formation process of the C₃N₄ nanowires.