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Anti-atherosclerotic effect of housefly (Musca domestica) maggot-derived protein-enriched extracts by dampened oxidative stress in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
- Mingzhu, Xiao, Xiaobao, Jin, Futian, Tang, Lijing, Wang, Jianwen, Mao, Xiaoqiang, Li, Fujiang, Chu, Yanting, Huang, Jing, Ding, Weiqiang, Chen, Jianguo, Geng, Jiayong, Zhu
- RSC advances 2016 v.6 no.107 pp. 105363-105370
- Musca domestica, adverse effects, antioxidants, apolipoprotein E, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, developed countries, diet, high density lipoprotein, hyperplasia, low density lipoprotein, macrophages, malondialdehyde, mice, morbidity, mortality, oxidation, oxidative stress, probucol, protective effect, risk, smooth muscle, therapeutics, toxicity
- Objective: Despitemany therapeutic advances, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Moreover, substantial residual cardiovascular risks, associated co-morbidities, and toxicological side-effects of conventional treatment remain key issues for successful therapeutic target, and highlight an urgent need for natural and comparatively less toxic agents. We found that housefly (Musca domestica) maggot-derived and protein-enriched extracts (PE) exhibited anti-oxidant effects in viroid had the potential to counter atherosclerosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced mice. The aim of this study was to explore the anti-atherosclerotic effect of PE and its possible anti-oxidative mechanisms in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE⁻/⁻) mice. Methods and Results: apoE⁻/⁻ mice (aged 8 weeks) were gavaged with PE and fed on a cholesterol enriched diet for 12 weeks. The results of aortic and aortic sinus analysis revealed that PE reversed the process of atherosclerotic lesion formation, retarded smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia, and decreased macrophage accumulation. Analysis of anti-oxidants showed that PE decreased levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA), whilst simultaneously increasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the plasma. Conclusions: observation indicated that PE displayed similar anti-atherosclerotic effects as did probucol. A putative mechanism might be associated with increased HDL levels, reduced oxidative stress, and dampened Ox-LDL levels in apoE⁻/⁻ mice.