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Diversity of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in Greenwater System of Coastal Aquaculture

Krishnani, Kishore Kumar, Kathiravan, V., Natarajan, M., Kailasam, M., Pillai, S. M.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2010 v.162 no.5 pp. 1225-1237
Pseudoxanthomonas, Roseobacter, Roseovarius, Ruegeria, Sulfitobacter, amino acid sequences, bacteria, enrichment culture, fish, genes, mariculture, metabolism, oxidation, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, shrimp culture, sulfur
Reduced sulfur compounds produced by the metabolism are the one of the major problems in aquaculture. In the present study, herbivorous fishes have been cultured as biomanipulators for secretions of slime, which enhanced the production of greenwater containing beneficial bacteria. The genes encoding soxB which is largely unique to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) due to its hydrolytic function has been targeted for examining the diversity of SOB in the green water system of coastal aquaculture. Novel sequences obtained based on the sequencing of metagenomic clone libraries for soxB genes revealed the abundance of SOB in green water system. Phylogenetic tree constructed from aligned amino acid sequences demonstrated that different clusters have only 82-93% match with Roseobacter sp., Phaeobacter sp., Roseovarius sp., Sulfitobacter sp., Ruegeria sp., and Oceanibulbus sp. The level of conservation of the soxB amino acid sequences ranged from 42% to 71%. 16S rRNA gene analyses of enrichment culture from green water system revealed the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp., which has 97% similarity with nutritionally fastidious Indian strain of Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana—a sulfur chemolithotrophic γ-proteobacterium. Our results illustrate the relevance of SOB in the functioning of the green water system of coastal shrimp aquaculture for oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, which in turn maintain the sulfide concentration well within the prescribed safe levels.