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Impact of halogen-free flame retardant with varied phosphorus chemical surrounding on the properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A type epoxy resin: synthesis, fire behaviour, flame-retardant mechanism and mechanical properties
- Zhao, Xiaomin, Babu, Heeralal Vignesh, Llorca, Javier, Wang, De-Yi
- RSC advances 2016 v.6 no.64 pp. 59226-59236
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bisphenol A, chemical structure, differential scanning calorimetry, epoxides, fire behavior, flame retardants, flammability, mass spectrometry, mechanical properties, phosphorus, temperature, thermal degradation, thermal stability, thermocouples, thermogravimetry, thermometers
- This work aimed to investigate the effect of two types of phosphorus-containing flame retardants (P-FRs) with different chemical surroundings (phenylphosphonate-based (PO–Ph) and phenylphosphoric-based (PO–OPh)) on the flame-retardant efficiency for diglycidyl ester of bisphenol-A type epoxy (EP) resin. The two series of P-FRs which were named as FPx and FPOx (x = 1, 2 and 3), respectively, showed reactivity with epoxy group that was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and variable temperature FTIR spectroscopy (VT-FTIR). A comparative study between the FPx and FPOx (x = 1, 2 and 3) containing flame-retardant epoxy was carried out via investigating their flammability, thermal stability and mechanical properties. The most significant difference in flame retardancy between them was that FPx (x = 1, 2 and 3) endowed EP with a V-0 rating in UL 94 test at 5 wt% loading, while FPOx (x = 1, 2 and 3) showed no rating at such loading. Importantly, it is found that there was almost 10 times difference in the flame-retardant efficiency for EP between FPx and FPOx, though they had similar chemically molecular structures. Moreover, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS coupling techniques (TGA, thermogravimetric analysis; MS, mass spectroscopy) were employed to study the thermal decomposition of FP1 and FPO1; the impacts of FP1 and FPO1 on the thermal decomposition of EP were studied by TGA-FTIR as well. Furthermore, an online temperature detection experiment was designed to collect the temperatures by thermocouples and infrared thermometers in the UL 94 test. Based on the above results, the flame-retardant mechanisms of FP1 and FPO1 in EP are discussed. In addition, the impact of P-FRs on mechanical properties of EP was studied by means of tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis.