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Analogous graphite carbon sheets derived from corn stalks as high performance sodium-ion battery anodes
- Qin, Decai, Zhang, Fang, Dong, Shengyang, Zhao, Yanzhang, Xu, Guiyin, Zhang, Xiaogang
- RSC advances 2016 v.6 no.108 pp. 106218-106224
- X-ray diffraction, anodes, batteries, biomass, carbonization, corn stover, electrolytes, graphene, ion transport, macropores, micropores, sodium, temperature
- Biomass derived carbon (BMC) materials have attracted much attention due to their high performance and abundant sources. Herein, analogous graphite carbon sheets (AGCS) from corn stalks have been synthesized via a simple high temperature carbonization and expansion process. A morphology study showed that the obtained carbon sheets retained the natural cross-sectional honeycomb-like shape and the longitudinal hollow tubular array structure of the corn stalks, which provided abundant macropores and micropores to facilitate sodium ion transportation and electrolyte diffusion. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the interlayer spacing of the carbon sheets is larger (0.384 nm) than that of graphite (0.335 nm), which allowed sodium ion to be de/intercalated. When used as an anode for sodium ion batteries, the sample carbonized at 1200 °C (AGCS-1200) showed a better sodium ion storage performance than that carbonized at 900 °C (BMC-900). AGCS-1200 exhibits a stable reversible capacity of 231 mA h g⁻¹ after 200 cycles at 0.25C (1C = 200 mA g⁻¹), while the capacity value for BMC-900 was 162 mA h g⁻¹ after 100 cycles. What’s more, a better rate capability for AGCS-1200 (232, 136 mA h g⁻¹) than that of BMC-900 (125, 68 mA h g⁻¹) at rates of 1C and 5C, respectively, is demonstrated. Significantly, the AGCs-1200 anode shows an excellent long-term cycling stability, which delivers a capacity of 42 mA h g⁻¹ after 2000 charge–discharge cycles at a very high rate of 15C.