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Potential waste from palm empty fruit bunches and eggshells as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production

Putra, Meilana Dharma, Ristianingsih, Yuli, Jelita, Rinny, Irawan, Chairul, Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
RSC advances 2017 v.7 no.87 pp. 55547-55554
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, biodiesel, calcium oxide, catalysts, cooking fats and oils, egg shell, fruits, fuel production, kitchen waste, methanol, scanning electron microscopy, silica, sodium hydroxide, vegetable oil
Biodiesel is one of the potential alternative energies produced from a variety of vegetable oils. The utilization of a CaO/SiO₂ catalyst generated from eggshell and palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) waste for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. The optimum silica yield extracted from PEFB was 68.2% using 10% NaOH (w/v) at 80 °C for 1 h. Methanol with a mol ratio of 14 to waste cooking oil was used. The presence of a silica support in the CaO catalyst increased the yield of biodiesel from 78% to 96%. Three runs of the catalyst led to only a 1% reduction in biodiesel yield. The utilization of activated PEFB as a support showed a potential result with a biodiesel yield of 83%. The prospective heterogeneous catalysts were also characterized by using XRD, SEM, BET and FT-IR. The developed CaO/SiO₂ stands out as a promising catalyst for biodiesel production due to the utilization of abundant and cheap waste materials. Moreover, a significant yield of biodiesel was obtained using the catalyst; hence, it is feasible to be developed on a larger scale.