U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Resolution of a Localized Granuloma Caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Complex on the Cere of a Bruce's Green Pigeon (Treron waalia)

E. Zikovitz Andrea, J. Bicknese Elizabeth, W. Pye Geoffrey
Journal of avian medicine and surgery 2018 v.32 no.4 pp. 322-327
Mycobacterium avium complex, beak, biopsy, clarithromycin, enrofloxacin, females, granuloma, inflammation, leukocyte count, mycobacterial diseases, necropsy, osteomyelitis, pigeons, tissues
A 3-year-old female Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia) was presented with granulomatous inflammation of the cere and underlying tissues with osteomyelitis and bone proliferation of the dorsal premaxilla. Biopsy and culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, and multi-antimicrobial treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, and enrofloxacin. The cere lesion improved and no evidence of systemic granulomas was observed over 4 months of treatment, although leukocytosis and monocytosis persisted. Five months after discontinuation of antibiotic therapy, the white blood cell count had normalized, but distal beak irregularities and partial recurrence of the mass were present. The bird died 15 months after discontinuation of antibiotic therapy and necropsy revealed no evidence of active mycobacteriosis of the beak or cere. This report documents an unusual clinical presentation of mycobacteriosis, in addition to its successful resolution.