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Sentinel lymph node mapping of the canine anal sac using lymphoscintigraphy: A pilot study

Linden, Daniel S., Cole, Robert, Tillson, D. Michael, Boothe, Harry W., Matz, Brad M.
Veterinary radiology & ultrasound 2019 v.60 no.3 pp. 346-350
adenocarcinoma, anal glands, biopsy, dogs, drainage, lymph nodes, medicine, metastasis, sulfur
Sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy are important parts of oncologic staging in human medicine. Sentinel lymph node mapping enables identification of the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage while avoiding unnecessary lymph node dissection. Anal sac adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the canine perineal area. For dogs with anal sac adenocarcinoma, lympadenectomy and metastasis to the iliosacral lymphocentrum are negative prognostics indicators. The objectives of this prospective, two by two, crossover pilot study were to establish the feasibility of lymphoscintigraphy using Technetium‐99 sulfur colloid of the canine anal sac of healthy dogs, compare two injection techniques, and the time for identification of sentinel lymph nodes using each technique. We hypothesized that both intramural and perimural injections of the canine anal sac would identify similar sentinel lymph node drainage. The sentinel lymph node was identified in all dogs using either technique. Intramural injection of the canine anal sac showed radiopharmaceutical uptake faster than perimural injection technique (P = 0.040). There was concordance between intramual and perimural techniques for the sentinel lymph node identified in 50% of cases. A sacral lymph node was identified as sentinel in three of eight dogs (37.5%). Lymphoscintigraphy of the canine anal sac is safe and feasible in normal dogs; however, the method of injection technique seems to have a significant effect on the sentinel lymph node identified.