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LC method for the direct and simultaneous determination of four major furan derivatives in coffee grounds and brews
- Albouchi, Abdullatif, Murkovic, Michael
- Journal of separation science 2019 v.42 no.9 pp. 1695-1701
- carboxylic acids, centrifugation, detection limit, diodes, furfuryl alcohol, high performance liquid chromatography, hydroxymethylfurfural, methanol, mutagens, sonication, standard deviation
- The simultaneous quantification of two potential genotoxic hydroxymethyl furan derivatives in coffee (furfuryl alcohol and 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural) alongside their carboxylic acid derivatives (2‐furoic acid and 5‐hydroxymethyl furoic acid, respectively) was carried out. Their extraction from ground roasted coffee using sonication, simple shaking or heat‐assisted shaking lead to similar results. A minimum of 97.3% of the four furan derivatives were extracted during the first extraction cycle using water, whereas methanol showed considerably lower extraction efficiency. A simple high‐performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination and was applied to roasted coffee extracts or brews. No sample pre‐treatment except for centrifugation was needed. The diode array detector was used to assess the purity of the peaks of interest in analyzed samples against authentic standards. The linearity according to Mandel, accuracy (recovery ≥ 89.9%) and precision (inter‐ and intraday relative standard deviation ≤ 4.5%) were checked. The values for the limit of detection and quantification ranged within 0.11–0.76 and 0.35–2.55 μg/mL, respectively. Filtered and espresso brews were analyzed for the four furan derivatives where furfuryl alcohol showed double the concentration of 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural and about ten times the concentrations of 2‐furoic acid or 5‐hydroxymethyl furoic acid.