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Preparation and characterisation of an innovative injectable calcium sulphate based bone cement for vertebroplasty application

Dadkhah, Mehran, Pontiroli, Lucia, Fiorilli, Sonia, Manca, Antonio, Tallia, Francesca, Tcacencu, Ion, Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara
Journal of materials chemistry B 2016 v.5 no.1 pp. 102-115
bioactive properties, body fluids, bone formation, calcium sulfate, cement, compression strength, crystals, hydroxyapatite, indirect contact, mechanical properties, mixing, polymethylmethacrylate, porous media, soaking, spray drying, Sweden
In this study, an innovative injectable and bioresorbable composite cement (Spine-Ghost) has been developed by combining a radiopaque glass-ceramic powder (SCNZgc) and spray-dried mesoporous bioactive particles (W-SC) into type III alpha calcium sulphate hemihydrate (α-CSH) (composition α-CSH/SCNZgc/W-SC, 70/20/10 wt%). The Spine-Ghost cement and pure α-CSH (as a reference) were characterised in terms of physical and mechanical properties and compared to a commercial reference (Cerament® – Bonesupport AB, Sweden). The Spine-Ghost cement had a setting time comparable with Cerament® showing a good injectability in the range of 8–20 minutes after the end of mixing. In addition, the Spine-Ghost cement showed a good radiopacity when compared with standard PMMA (BonOs Inject, aap Biomaterials GmbH Germany) and higher compressive strength when compared to healthy cancellous bone. The bioactivity of both Spine-Ghost and Cerament® was evaluated through in vitro soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Spine-Ghost samples were highly bioactive, inducing the precipitation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the first week of soaking in vitro. It was also found that the degradation kinetics of the Spine-Ghost cement were faster than those of pure α-CSH and comparable to those of Cerament® after approximately 1 month of soaking in SBF. Moreover, the Spine-Ghost cement was cytocompatible in indirect-contact culture in vitro. Overall results indicate that the Spine-Ghost cement might be a very good candidate for vertebroplasty application and could enhance new bone formation in vivo.