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Increasing the homologous recombination efficiency of eukaryotic microorganisms for enhanced genome engineering

Ding, Ying, Wang, Kai-Feng, Wang, Wei-Jian, Ma, Yi-Rong, Shi, Tian-Qiong, Huang, He, Ji, Xiao-Jun
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.11 pp. 4313-4324
gene editing, genes, genetic background, health services, homologous recombination, industry, yeasts
In recent years, eukaryotic microorganisms have been widely applied to offer many solutions for everyday life and have come to play important roles in agriculture, food, health care, and the fine-chemicals industry. However, the complex genetic background and low homologous recombination efficiency have hampered the implementation of large-scale and high-throughput gene editing in many eukaryotic microorganisms. The low efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) not only makes the modification process labor-intensive but also completely precludes the application of many otherwise very useful genome editing techniques. Thus, increasing the efficiency of HR is clearly an enabling technology for basic research and gene editing in eukaryotic microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the current strategies for enhancing the efficiency of HR in eukaryotic microorganisms (particularly yeasts and filamentous fungi), list some small molecules and candidate genes associated with homologous and non-homologous recombination, and briefly discuss the further development prospects of these strategies.