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Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells
- Kim, Y. H., Kim, K. S., Kwak, N. J., Lee, K. H., Kweon, S. A., Lim, Y.
- Journal of biosciences 2003 v.28 no.1 pp. 77-81
- aluminum, calcium, cell lines, cell viability, cytotoxicity, epithelial cells, hydrogen peroxide, loess, lungs, nitrites, particle size, rats, reactive nitrogen species, sand, silica, silicon, titanium dioxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, China
- The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca²⁺]i. All three particles increased the generation of H₂O₂. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO₂ induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-α. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.