Main content area

Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

Kim, Y. H., Kim, K. S., Kwak, N. J., Lee, K. H., Kweon, S. A., Lim, Y.
Journal of biosciences 2003 v.28 no.1 pp. 77-81
aluminum, calcium, cell lines, cell viability, cytotoxicity, epithelial cells, hydrogen peroxide, loess, lungs, nitrites, particle size, rats, reactive nitrogen species, sand, silica, silicon, titanium dioxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, China
The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca²⁺]i. All three particles increased the generation of H₂O₂. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO₂ induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-α. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.