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Contribution of sociodemographic, occupational, lifestyle and dietary characteristics to the oxidative stress microenvironment in adipose tissue

León, Josefa, Sáenz, José M., Artacho-Cordón, Francisco, Fernández, Mariana F., Martin-Olmedo, Piedad, Salamanca-Fernández, Elena, Gómez-Peña, Celia, Olea, Nicolás, Arrebola, Juan P.
Environmental research 2019 v.175 pp. 52-62
adipose tissue, adults, antioxidants, biomarkers, children, eating habits, environmental factors, glutathione, health status, heme oxygenase (biliverdin-producing), hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle, lipid peroxidation, men, oxidative stress, public health, questionnaires, regression analysis, sociodemographic characteristics, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, women, Spain
The present study was conceived on the basis of the few previous reports suggesting a potential relevance of the oxidative stress microenvironment in the adipose tissue, a biological matrix which is closely related to the development of several chronic pathologies. Thus, our aim was to describe the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage in adipose tissue samples from a Spanish cohort, as well as their main sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary predictors.The study was conducted in a subsample (n = 271 adults) of GraMo cohort, recruited in Granada (Southern Spain). A face-to-face questionnaire was used to gather data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, dietary habits, health status, and perceived exposure to chemicals. We analyzed adipose tissue levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, and glutathione cycle biomarkers. Potential predictors of oxidative stress markers were assessed using stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses.SOD and TBARS levels were mainly related to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, while the components of the glutathione cycle and HO-1 were predominantly associated with dietary habits. Men showed significantly lower levels of oxidative stress levels than women. In the regression models including only women, the use of oral contraceptive and hormonal therapy was associated with lower levels of oxidative stress, while the number of children was positively associated with increased oxidative biomarkers.Our results suggest that adipose tissue is potentially important matrix for the assessment of oxidative stress, which can be affected by specific environmental factors. These findings might be relevant for public health.