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Isolation and bioactive evaluation of flavonoid glycosides from Lobelia chinensis Lour using two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with label-free cell phenotypic assays
- Wang, Jixia, Chen, Linlin, Qu, Lala, Li, Kuiyong, Zhao, Yaopeng, Wang, Zhiwei, Li, Yuan, Zhang, Xiuli, Jin, Yu, Liang, Xinmiao
- Journal of chromatography 2019 v.1601 pp. 224-231
- G-protein coupled receptors, Lobelia chinensis, bioactive properties, chemical structure, dietary supplements, flavonoids, glycosides, herbs, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, liquid chromatography, mechanism of action, phenotype, solid phase extraction, sugars, zwitterions
- Flavonoid glycosides are widespread in herbs and often used as medicines and nutraceuticals because of good bioactivities and low toxicities. However, due to their structural complexity and diversity, isolation of flavonoid glycosides and evaluation of their bioactivities are still highly challenging. To solve this problem, a new method for separation and preparation of novel flavonoid glycosides from Lobelia chinensis Lour (L. chinensis) was developed. To avoid the interference of non-flavonoids, a solid phase extraction method was used to selectively enrich the flavonoids from the total extract. Based on hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the flavonoid chemical structure consisting of sugar residue and diphenylpropane (C6C3C6) skeleton, a structure-guided method development strategy was employed to design a 2D-HILIC × RPLC system in the first time. After optimization of chromatographic conditions, high selectivity and symmetric peaks of flavonoids were obtained on a zwitterionic Click XIon column and a polar-modified Atlantis T3 column. Based on these two columns, a 2 D-HILIC × RPLC system was constructed and successfully enlarged from the analytical level to the preparative level. In the first dimension, 20 fractions were obtained with good peak shapes at high sample loading. In the second-dimensional preparation, nine compounds were isolated and identified. Seven of them were novel flavonoid glycosides, lobelitin A-G, and two other known compounds were linatin and diosmin, respectively. Their target activities were evaluated via label-free cell phenotypic assays. Four novel flavonoid glycosides lobelitin A-D were found to have agonistic activities at G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35). These results demonstrated that this method was effective to orthogonally separate flavonoids at the preparative level, especially for novel active flavonoid glycosides. The discovery of flavonoid glycosides with novel agonistic activity on GPR35 also sheds light on the mechanisms of action of L. chinensis relevant to its clinical application.