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Toxicity of nanosilver and fumonisin B1 and their interactions on duckweed (Lemna minor L.)

Radić, Sandra, Domijan, Ana-Marija, Glavaš Ljubimir, Katarina, Maldini, Krešimir, Ivešić, Martina, Peharec Štefanić, Petra, Krivohlavek, Adela
Chemosphere 2019 v.229 pp. 86-93
Lemna minor, additive effect, enzyme activity, fumonisin B1, lipid peroxidation, nanosilver, nutrients, photosynthesis, phytotoxicity, pigments, silver
In the environment co-contamination of several toxicants commonly occurs. However, toxicological studies usually are focused on only one toxicant. The aim of this study was to investigate toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) and their possible interactions as well as to explore tentative mechanism of their toxic effect. Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) was treated with AgNP or FB1 (at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 mg L−1) or with their combination at same concentrations for 3 days. Both AgNP and FB1, applied individually significantly affected levels of certain nutrients, reduced growth rate and the levels of photosynthetic pigments though AgNP at a much greater extent compared to FB1. Furthermore, AgNP induced ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and increase of antioxidative enzymes activities, while FB1 induced changes only in the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Those results implicate that phytotoxicity of both AgNP and FB1 can be associated with imbalance of mineral and cell redox status. However, toxic actions of AgNp singly applied were more pronounced. Combined treatment with AgNP and FB1 produced higher degree of changes in all parameters than corresponding concentrations of AgNP or FB1 alone implying their additive effects. Additionally, higher level of FB1 found in medium, and higher level of intracellular Ag following combined treatment indicates interaction of two toxicants at the transport level/uptake in the cell which resulted in higher accumulation of Ag in duckweed cells. The latter in turn exerted higher toxicity to duckweed compared to single treatment of AgNP.