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Phytoremediation efficacy assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils using garden pea (Pisum sativum) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

Sivaram, Anithadevi Kenday, Logeshwaran, Panneerselvan, Lockington, Robin, Naidu, Ravi, Megharaj, Mallavarapu
Chemosphere 2019 v.229 pp. 227-235
Chrysopogon zizanioides, DNA damage, Eisenia fetida, Helianthus annuus, Pisum sativum subsp. sativum var. sativum, Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii, Zea mays, bioassays, chemical analysis, corn, earthworms, ecotoxicology, genotoxicity, grasses, leghemoglobin, legumes, nodulation, phytoremediation, polluted soils, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, residual effects
Endpoint assessment using biological systems in combination with the chemical analysis is important for evaluating the residual effect of contaminants following remediation. In this study, the level of residual toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after 120 days of phytoremediation with five different plant species:- maize (Zea mays), Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and wallaby grass (Austrodanthonia sp.) has been evaluated by ecotoxicological tests such as root nodulation and leghaemoglobin assay using garden pea (Pisum sativum) and acute, chronic and genotoxicity assays using earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The phytoremediated soil exhibited lesser toxicity supporting improved root nodulation and leghaemoglobin content in P. sativum and reducing DNA damage in E. fetida when compared to contaminated soil before remediation. Also, the results of the ecotoxicological assays with the legume and earthworm performed in this study complemented the results obtained by the chemical analysis of PAHs in phytoremediated soil. Therefore, these findings provide a basis for a framework in which remediation efficacy of PAHs-contaminated sites can be evaluated effectively with simple ecotoxicological bioassays using legumes and earthworms.