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Neonicotinoid insecticides in surface water from the central Yangtze River, China

Mahai, Gaga, Wan, Yanjian, Xia, Wei, Yang, Shunyi, He, Zhenyu, Xu, Shunqing
Chemosphere 2019 v.229 pp. 452-460
acetamiprid, aquatic organisms, clothianidin, cumulative risk assessment, environmental monitoring, freshwater, imidacloprid, ingestion, land use, metabolites, nitenpyram, risk, spring, summer, surface water, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, China, Yangtze River
Neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) are extensively used insecticides worldwide, yet the data on NNIs residues in the Yangtze River, China is scarce. Occurrence and distribution of six NNIs and a metabolite (desmethyl-acetamiprid) in surface water were investigated in the central Yangtze River, China at 20 sites from March to July and September 2015. Acetamiprid (ACE), imidacloprid (IMI) and thiamethoxam (THM) were the most frequently detected NNIs and IMI had a highest median concentration of 4.37 ng/L, followed by ACE (2.50 ng/L), THM (1.10 ng/L), nitenpyram (NTP; 0.34 ng/L), clothianidin (CLO; 0.10 ng/L), and thiacloprid (THCP; 0.02 ng/L). Significantly higher concentrations and detection frequencies of NNIs were observed in the summer than in the spring, which may be explained by the heavier precipitation in summer. Spatial variation with higher levels among the lower sites than the upper sites may be related with the agriculture land use. NNI contamination presented a low risk to aquatic life according to the risk quotient method, while IMI had potential risk to aquatic life according to the threshold of IMI (8.3 ng/L) in freshwater recommended in Netherland. Using the relative potency factors method for chronic cumulative risk assessment for NNIs, potential exposure to NNIs through water ingestion are three orders of magnitude lower than the recommended relative chronic reference dose. Ongoing environmental monitoring of NNIs is needed due to the increase use of NNIs in China.